You've got good suggestions already. Rather than type of wood, I'm much more concerned about scale length, pickup selection, weight, and ergonomics.
Historically, Leo Fender used swamp ash and alder for production guitars, almost exclusively with maple necks. He didn't choose them because they sound good; he chose them because they were cheap (at the time) and he was designing guitars with a production line mentality. Today, Fender also uses poplar and basswood. Several other companies do as well.
By contrast, Gibson used mostly mahogany bodies and necks, influenced in large part by Les Paul (the man) who was a showman. Les believed mahogany was more sophisticated and would be more desirable to professionals. So, Gibson had a very different perspective on why they chose the wood they did, and neither they nor Fender made their choices due to sound (this is true really only for solid bodies; once you get into acoustics and semi-hollows, wood choice matters immensely).
Like was mentioned above, guitar players can be extremely picky and traditional, and Gibson has done an especially good job of marketing to that mentality. But a good solid body can be made from nearly any wood, and often from many non-wood substances.
Now, when we talk about necks, that's a different story. Necks really need some characteristics, simply to manage the string tension. Quartsawn necks really are more stable, but flat sawn necks work well if the grain is straight and the neck is thick enough. I've only made necks from maple, mahogany, or walnut, and the walnut was a maple/walnut laminate. It was fine, but walnut is a little soft for me by itself.
For fretboards, it has to be dense. I prefer the look and feel of ebony, but I've used rosewood and wenge, too. It's gotta be dense enough to hold the fretwire and not dish out (scallop) too fast under playing pressure.