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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
OVERVIEW

I promised Blake that I would undertake a short series on Finishing techniques - primarily using Wax.

These three short blogs are the notes presented at a demonstration I gave last Friday evening. Sorry there are no photographs at the moment - not that there would be much to see. I hope you find it useful.
----------------------------------------------------------------
Finishing
This presentation is going to try and explain the selection process and application of wax as used as a protective and decorative finish.

The goal of this presentation is to explain why we are selecting the use of wax, the preparation of the surface prior to application, the application of the wax and the maintenance of the piece after application.

But, before I start in detail, there is a selection process we must go through every time make something, this is applicable whether it be a Table, Box, Piece of Art or a small Egg turned on a lathe. Most of us, through experience, do not go through this process consciously every time, but sub-consciously we do, it all comes down to past experience.

There are 5 main categories/thought processes we must apply in each and every project these are listed below.
1. Why finish a product
Why do we apply a finish, whatever it may be?
• To give some protection to the finished item from damage
• To enhance or change the appearance of the material used.

2. Selection of finish
The first questions we have to ask ourselves, even before we start the project is "What level of protection do we want/need"?
i. Cosmetic (Art pieces, decorative - non use items)
ii. Durable (chairs, cabinets, beds)
iii. Heavy Use (table tops, work surfaces)
iv. Inside or outside (will the project come into contact with the elements ({sun, wind, rain snow})

3. Surface Preparation
The amount of work done on surface preparation largely depends on the following:
i. The type of finish/protection selected.
ii. The material used.
iii. The appearance of the final project (Rustic, everyday use, fine use).

4. Applying the finish
The application of the finish is largely determined by the finish selected, but could be one of the following:
• Spray
• Brush or roller
• Hand applied (rubbed or wiped)

5. Maintenance
This last part of the process involves what must be done to maintain, sometimes even to enhance the project after it is finished and in place.
 

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3,464 Posts
OVERVIEW

I promised Blake that I would undertake a short series on Finishing techniques - primarily using Wax.

These three short blogs are the notes presented at a demonstration I gave last Friday evening. Sorry there are no photographs at the moment - not that there would be much to see. I hope you find it useful.
----------------------------------------------------------------
Finishing
This presentation is going to try and explain the selection process and application of wax as used as a protective and decorative finish.

The goal of this presentation is to explain why we are selecting the use of wax, the preparation of the surface prior to application, the application of the wax and the maintenance of the piece after application.

But, before I start in detail, there is a selection process we must go through every time make something, this is applicable whether it be a Table, Box, Piece of Art or a small Egg turned on a lathe. Most of us, through experience, do not go through this process consciously every time, but sub-consciously we do, it all comes down to past experience.

There are 5 main categories/thought processes we must apply in each and every project these are listed below.
1. Why finish a product
Why do we apply a finish, whatever it may be?
• To give some protection to the finished item from damage
• To enhance or change the appearance of the material used.

2. Selection of finish
The first questions we have to ask ourselves, even before we start the project is "What level of protection do we want/need"?
i. Cosmetic (Art pieces, decorative - non use items)
ii. Durable (chairs, cabinets, beds)
iii. Heavy Use (table tops, work surfaces)
iv. Inside or outside (will the project come into contact with the elements ({sun, wind, rain snow})

3. Surface Preparation
The amount of work done on surface preparation largely depends on the following:
i. The type of finish/protection selected.
ii. The material used.
iii. The appearance of the final project (Rustic, everyday use, fine use).

4. Applying the finish
The application of the finish is largely determined by the finish selected, but could be one of the following:
• Spray
• Brush or roller
• Hand applied (rubbed or wiped)

5. Maintenance
This last part of the process involves what must be done to maintain, sometimes even to enhance the project after it is finished and in place.
Awesome, Tony! Thanks for posting this. I can't wait to read the whole series.
 

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27,252 Posts
OVERVIEW

I promised Blake that I would undertake a short series on Finishing techniques - primarily using Wax.

These three short blogs are the notes presented at a demonstration I gave last Friday evening. Sorry there are no photographs at the moment - not that there would be much to see. I hope you find it useful.
----------------------------------------------------------------
Finishing
This presentation is going to try and explain the selection process and application of wax as used as a protective and decorative finish.

The goal of this presentation is to explain why we are selecting the use of wax, the preparation of the surface prior to application, the application of the wax and the maintenance of the piece after application.

But, before I start in detail, there is a selection process we must go through every time make something, this is applicable whether it be a Table, Box, Piece of Art or a small Egg turned on a lathe. Most of us, through experience, do not go through this process consciously every time, but sub-consciously we do, it all comes down to past experience.

There are 5 main categories/thought processes we must apply in each and every project these are listed below.
1. Why finish a product
Why do we apply a finish, whatever it may be?
• To give some protection to the finished item from damage
• To enhance or change the appearance of the material used.

2. Selection of finish
The first questions we have to ask ourselves, even before we start the project is "What level of protection do we want/need"?
i. Cosmetic (Art pieces, decorative - non use items)
ii. Durable (chairs, cabinets, beds)
iii. Heavy Use (table tops, work surfaces)
iv. Inside or outside (will the project come into contact with the elements ({sun, wind, rain snow})

3. Surface Preparation
The amount of work done on surface preparation largely depends on the following:
i. The type of finish/protection selected.
ii. The material used.
iii. The appearance of the final project (Rustic, everyday use, fine use).

4. Applying the finish
The application of the finish is largely determined by the finish selected, but could be one of the following:
• Spray
• Brush or roller
• Hand applied (rubbed or wiped)

5. Maintenance
This last part of the process involves what must be done to maintain, sometimes even to enhance the project after it is finished and in place.
Thanks Tony. I agree with Blake.
 

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 1

Wax and Oils are one of the oldest, if not the oldest form of protection for wood and wood products known to man - it has been used for millennia all over the world.

On the market today there are a multitude of products to choose from natural waxes, such as Bees Wax or Carnauba Wax to hybrid waxes, which are mixed with other oils and waxes to make application and drying times faster. These hybrid wax systems are usually available in different colours, which enable you to stain wood at the same time as providing a protective finish.

There are 2 basic ways of apply wax to the project, depending upon the required finish.
1. Directly to bare wood
2. On top of another medium, such as Oil, shellac or Varnish.

Applying to untreated wood.

Step 1.
For applying directly to bare/untreated wood, the wood should be sanded to about 180 grain for a matt finish, 320 grain for a semi-gloss finish and 600 grain for a higher sheen. All sanding should be in the direction of the grain where possible, ensuring that there are no traces of glue remaining.

Step 2.
Remove all traces of sanding dust, by cloth or vacuum.

Step 3.
Apply a small amount Fiddes "Supreme wax" with 0000 wire wool in the direction of the wood grain; not forgetting to get into the corners and joint lines. Immediately remove any excess wax with a separate soft cloth, again in the direction of the grain. It should be noted that the use of coloured waxes will darken the wood, and subsequent applications of coloured wax will deepen the colour. You should always test the colour waxes on scrap wood from the project.

Step 4.
Leave the wax to dry in accordance with the manufactures instructions, between 3 to 30 minutes depending upon the type of wax used and conditions in the room.

Step 5.
Buff the wax in the direction of the grain, wherever possible with a soft cloth. Leaving a super sheen.

Step 6.
Apply further coats of wax as necessary or desired.
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 1

Wax and Oils are one of the oldest, if not the oldest form of protection for wood and wood products known to man - it has been used for millennia all over the world.

On the market today there are a multitude of products to choose from natural waxes, such as Bees Wax or Carnauba Wax to hybrid waxes, which are mixed with other oils and waxes to make application and drying times faster. These hybrid wax systems are usually available in different colours, which enable you to stain wood at the same time as providing a protective finish.

There are 2 basic ways of apply wax to the project, depending upon the required finish.
1. Directly to bare wood
2. On top of another medium, such as Oil, shellac or Varnish.

Applying to untreated wood.

Step 1.
For applying directly to bare/untreated wood, the wood should be sanded to about 180 grain for a matt finish, 320 grain for a semi-gloss finish and 600 grain for a higher sheen. All sanding should be in the direction of the grain where possible, ensuring that there are no traces of glue remaining.

Step 2.
Remove all traces of sanding dust, by cloth or vacuum.

Step 3.
Apply a small amount Fiddes "Supreme wax" with 0000 wire wool in the direction of the wood grain; not forgetting to get into the corners and joint lines. Immediately remove any excess wax with a separate soft cloth, again in the direction of the grain. It should be noted that the use of coloured waxes will darken the wood, and subsequent applications of coloured wax will deepen the colour. You should always test the colour waxes on scrap wood from the project.

Step 4.
Leave the wax to dry in accordance with the manufactures instructions, between 3 to 30 minutes depending upon the type of wax used and conditions in the room.

Step 5.
Buff the wax in the direction of the grain, wherever possible with a soft cloth. Leaving a super sheen.

Step 6.
Apply further coats of wax as necessary or desired.
So simple, I love it. I am going to try this on my next project.
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 1

Wax and Oils are one of the oldest, if not the oldest form of protection for wood and wood products known to man - it has been used for millennia all over the world.

On the market today there are a multitude of products to choose from natural waxes, such as Bees Wax or Carnauba Wax to hybrid waxes, which are mixed with other oils and waxes to make application and drying times faster. These hybrid wax systems are usually available in different colours, which enable you to stain wood at the same time as providing a protective finish.

There are 2 basic ways of apply wax to the project, depending upon the required finish.
1. Directly to bare wood
2. On top of another medium, such as Oil, shellac or Varnish.

Applying to untreated wood.

Step 1.
For applying directly to bare/untreated wood, the wood should be sanded to about 180 grain for a matt finish, 320 grain for a semi-gloss finish and 600 grain for a higher sheen. All sanding should be in the direction of the grain where possible, ensuring that there are no traces of glue remaining.

Step 2.
Remove all traces of sanding dust, by cloth or vacuum.

Step 3.
Apply a small amount Fiddes "Supreme wax" with 0000 wire wool in the direction of the wood grain; not forgetting to get into the corners and joint lines. Immediately remove any excess wax with a separate soft cloth, again in the direction of the grain. It should be noted that the use of coloured waxes will darken the wood, and subsequent applications of coloured wax will deepen the colour. You should always test the colour waxes on scrap wood from the project.

Step 4.
Leave the wax to dry in accordance with the manufactures instructions, between 3 to 30 minutes depending upon the type of wax used and conditions in the room.

Step 5.
Buff the wax in the direction of the grain, wherever possible with a soft cloth. Leaving a super sheen.

Step 6.
Apply further coats of wax as necessary or desired.
I'm gonna try this on my latest box, Tony. I can't believe I'm the only one to comment here. This seems like such a valuable post for people who haven't tried this simple, age-old finishing technique (the generation-polyurethane-ers.)
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 1

Wax and Oils are one of the oldest, if not the oldest form of protection for wood and wood products known to man - it has been used for millennia all over the world.

On the market today there are a multitude of products to choose from natural waxes, such as Bees Wax or Carnauba Wax to hybrid waxes, which are mixed with other oils and waxes to make application and drying times faster. These hybrid wax systems are usually available in different colours, which enable you to stain wood at the same time as providing a protective finish.

There are 2 basic ways of apply wax to the project, depending upon the required finish.
1. Directly to bare wood
2. On top of another medium, such as Oil, shellac or Varnish.

Applying to untreated wood.

Step 1.
For applying directly to bare/untreated wood, the wood should be sanded to about 180 grain for a matt finish, 320 grain for a semi-gloss finish and 600 grain for a higher sheen. All sanding should be in the direction of the grain where possible, ensuring that there are no traces of glue remaining.

Step 2.
Remove all traces of sanding dust, by cloth or vacuum.

Step 3.
Apply a small amount Fiddes "Supreme wax" with 0000 wire wool in the direction of the wood grain; not forgetting to get into the corners and joint lines. Immediately remove any excess wax with a separate soft cloth, again in the direction of the grain. It should be noted that the use of coloured waxes will darken the wood, and subsequent applications of coloured wax will deepen the colour. You should always test the colour waxes on scrap wood from the project.

Step 4.
Leave the wax to dry in accordance with the manufactures instructions, between 3 to 30 minutes depending upon the type of wax used and conditions in the room.

Step 5.
Buff the wax in the direction of the grain, wherever possible with a soft cloth. Leaving a super sheen.

Step 6.
Apply further coats of wax as necessary or desired.
Thanks Tony.
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 1

Wax and Oils are one of the oldest, if not the oldest form of protection for wood and wood products known to man - it has been used for millennia all over the world.

On the market today there are a multitude of products to choose from natural waxes, such as Bees Wax or Carnauba Wax to hybrid waxes, which are mixed with other oils and waxes to make application and drying times faster. These hybrid wax systems are usually available in different colours, which enable you to stain wood at the same time as providing a protective finish.

There are 2 basic ways of apply wax to the project, depending upon the required finish.
1. Directly to bare wood
2. On top of another medium, such as Oil, shellac or Varnish.

Applying to untreated wood.

Step 1.
For applying directly to bare/untreated wood, the wood should be sanded to about 180 grain for a matt finish, 320 grain for a semi-gloss finish and 600 grain for a higher sheen. All sanding should be in the direction of the grain where possible, ensuring that there are no traces of glue remaining.

Step 2.
Remove all traces of sanding dust, by cloth or vacuum.

Step 3.
Apply a small amount Fiddes "Supreme wax" with 0000 wire wool in the direction of the wood grain; not forgetting to get into the corners and joint lines. Immediately remove any excess wax with a separate soft cloth, again in the direction of the grain. It should be noted that the use of coloured waxes will darken the wood, and subsequent applications of coloured wax will deepen the colour. You should always test the colour waxes on scrap wood from the project.

Step 4.
Leave the wax to dry in accordance with the manufactures instructions, between 3 to 30 minutes depending upon the type of wax used and conditions in the room.

Step 5.
Buff the wax in the direction of the grain, wherever possible with a soft cloth. Leaving a super sheen.

Step 6.
Apply further coats of wax as necessary or desired.
Very valuable information on wax polishing. I am going to try it on my latest project which is a box made from Shisham wood.
Sharad
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 1

Wax and Oils are one of the oldest, if not the oldest form of protection for wood and wood products known to man - it has been used for millennia all over the world.

On the market today there are a multitude of products to choose from natural waxes, such as Bees Wax or Carnauba Wax to hybrid waxes, which are mixed with other oils and waxes to make application and drying times faster. These hybrid wax systems are usually available in different colours, which enable you to stain wood at the same time as providing a protective finish.

There are 2 basic ways of apply wax to the project, depending upon the required finish.
1. Directly to bare wood
2. On top of another medium, such as Oil, shellac or Varnish.

Applying to untreated wood.

Step 1.
For applying directly to bare/untreated wood, the wood should be sanded to about 180 grain for a matt finish, 320 grain for a semi-gloss finish and 600 grain for a higher sheen. All sanding should be in the direction of the grain where possible, ensuring that there are no traces of glue remaining.

Step 2.
Remove all traces of sanding dust, by cloth or vacuum.

Step 3.
Apply a small amount Fiddes "Supreme wax" with 0000 wire wool in the direction of the wood grain; not forgetting to get into the corners and joint lines. Immediately remove any excess wax with a separate soft cloth, again in the direction of the grain. It should be noted that the use of coloured waxes will darken the wood, and subsequent applications of coloured wax will deepen the colour. You should always test the colour waxes on scrap wood from the project.

Step 4.
Leave the wax to dry in accordance with the manufactures instructions, between 3 to 30 minutes depending upon the type of wax used and conditions in the room.

Step 5.
Buff the wax in the direction of the grain, wherever possible with a soft cloth. Leaving a super sheen.

Step 6.
Apply further coats of wax as necessary or desired.
thanks T for tip
 

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Discussion Starter · #10 ·
Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 2

Application of Wax on top of another medium.

Before we get too much into this part, there are a few things we have to consider about the wood we are using for our project, especially if we want a high shine on the project.

OPEN/CLOSE GRAIN
Some woods, such as Oak, Mahogany and Walnut have what is called "open grain", whilst others like Cherry, Maple and Birch have what is called "close grain". The open grain woods, if not treated correctly will always give an interrupted surface, such as an orange or lemon is compared to an apple.
To overcome this problem, we need to "fill the grain" - this is easily achievable with grain filler (subject of another lecture) which are commercially available.

GRAIN ENHANCEMENT
Does the wood we want finish have some nice grain or features we want to enhance, such as a burl. If it does then we would be better of using an oil to start the process of finishing. Oils tend to enhance the grains and patterns in wood more than any other finish available.

CHANGING THE COLOUR
Does the wood need to be stained? Why do we stain wood - 2 main reasons firstly to alter the appearance of the wood, Alder or Aspen to look like Walnut or Mahogany. Secondly and probably more importantly to balance the colour of the same wood but from a different plank/board i.e adjacent glued up boards (subject of another lecture).

For this demonstration I am using a piece of White Oak (open Grain), which we want to be darker than the natural colour, we also want it to have a medium to high shine, with good protection against food, wine and some heat resistance.

Step 1.
Sand the piece to be protected starting at 80g, then 120g, 180, 240g , ensuring that you sand with the grain wherever possible.

Step 2.
Clean the piece of all dust, ensure that all traces of glue have been removed.

Step 3
Apply the stain and leave to dry. Note if using a NGR (Non Grain Raining) stain then Step 4 can be omitted.

Step 4
Sand the entire project again with 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain. This is to remove any grain that might have been "raised" during the staining process (especially prevalent with water based stains)

Step 5.
Apply the grain filler (you should use a darker filler than the final colour you want to achieve, this will allow for the natural darkening of the project to blend with the filler in a short time.) in small circular motion, leave the filler to dry. Using a clean piece of sacking wipe the excess filler of the work piece ensure you wipe across the grain, NOT with the grain.

Step 6.
Re-sand the piece again - using 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain.

Step 7 (Optional)
Re-apply a coat of stain (optional) as in step 3. This maybe may be necessary, if you have removed too much wood during the sanding process or if you want to make the project darker/fuller in colour.

Step 8.
We now apply our first protective coating - this could be oil, varnish, Oil/varnish mix, shellac or some other medium. This coating is going to give us the high degree of protection we need for everyday use.

I have used Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, as it is one of the easiest to apply, gives a superb finish and very resistant to spills and scratching.
Apply a thin coat of the Osmo Polyx hardwax oil to the whole piece, then with a clean cloth remove any excess.(this should be done with 15 minutes of application), if necessary on larger pieces work in sections or zones. Leave to dry for 12 hours or overnight.

Tip/Hint The cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera used for the application of this oil can be used again, place the cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera in a plastic bag, remove most of the air, seal the bag and put it in the freezer. When you want to reuse them, just let them defrost and you are ready to go.

Step 9.
Re-sand the piece again - using 320g in the direction of the grain.

Step 10.
Apply a second coat of the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, in the same manner as Step 8. Leave to dry for a minimum of 12 hours.

Step 11.
Re-sand the piece again - using 600g in the direction of the grain. If you want a higher sheen, especially for table tops, then Re-sand the piece with 1000g, then 1500g. Remove any dust and allow to dry.

Step 12.
We are now ready to apply our 1st coat of wax. We are going to use Fiddes "Mellow wax, this wax is formulated for applying onto prefinished pieces such as our sample. Whilst we can use a coloured wax, there is no real advantage in this example as the wood is so dark, the wax would not have any appreciable effect. We could also use the Fiddes "Supreme wax" just as easily, it is just that I prefer the use of the Mellow wax for this application.

Apply a light coat of wax to the piece rubbing in small circular motion, then finish off by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Ensure to remove any surplus wax before it has dried.
Leave to dry for the required time

Step 13.
Buff the piece with a clean dry soft cloth, preferably in the direction of the grain.

Step 14.
Repeat the application wax in step 12.

Step 15.
Repeat step 14. When fully buffed the work is finished - the project can now be used. However for full protection, I would prefer to leave the piece for an additional 2 weeks in cool (not cold) dry conditions, just to let the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil fully cure. (if using Oil/Varnish or Varnish, then I would leave it for 6 weeks) After this time a additional buffing, would not hurt, or even an additional light coat of wax.
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 2

Application of Wax on top of another medium.

Before we get too much into this part, there are a few things we have to consider about the wood we are using for our project, especially if we want a high shine on the project.

OPEN/CLOSE GRAIN
Some woods, such as Oak, Mahogany and Walnut have what is called "open grain", whilst others like Cherry, Maple and Birch have what is called "close grain". The open grain woods, if not treated correctly will always give an interrupted surface, such as an orange or lemon is compared to an apple.
To overcome this problem, we need to "fill the grain" - this is easily achievable with grain filler (subject of another lecture) which are commercially available.

GRAIN ENHANCEMENT
Does the wood we want finish have some nice grain or features we want to enhance, such as a burl. If it does then we would be better of using an oil to start the process of finishing. Oils tend to enhance the grains and patterns in wood more than any other finish available.

CHANGING THE COLOUR
Does the wood need to be stained? Why do we stain wood - 2 main reasons firstly to alter the appearance of the wood, Alder or Aspen to look like Walnut or Mahogany. Secondly and probably more importantly to balance the colour of the same wood but from a different plank/board i.e adjacent glued up boards (subject of another lecture).

For this demonstration I am using a piece of White Oak (open Grain), which we want to be darker than the natural colour, we also want it to have a medium to high shine, with good protection against food, wine and some heat resistance.

Step 1.
Sand the piece to be protected starting at 80g, then 120g, 180, 240g , ensuring that you sand with the grain wherever possible.

Step 2.
Clean the piece of all dust, ensure that all traces of glue have been removed.

Step 3
Apply the stain and leave to dry. Note if using a NGR (Non Grain Raining) stain then Step 4 can be omitted.

Step 4
Sand the entire project again with 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain. This is to remove any grain that might have been "raised" during the staining process (especially prevalent with water based stains)

Step 5.
Apply the grain filler (you should use a darker filler than the final colour you want to achieve, this will allow for the natural darkening of the project to blend with the filler in a short time.) in small circular motion, leave the filler to dry. Using a clean piece of sacking wipe the excess filler of the work piece ensure you wipe across the grain, NOT with the grain.

Step 6.
Re-sand the piece again - using 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain.

Step 7 (Optional)
Re-apply a coat of stain (optional) as in step 3. This maybe may be necessary, if you have removed too much wood during the sanding process or if you want to make the project darker/fuller in colour.

Step 8.
We now apply our first protective coating - this could be oil, varnish, Oil/varnish mix, shellac or some other medium. This coating is going to give us the high degree of protection we need for everyday use.

I have used Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, as it is one of the easiest to apply, gives a superb finish and very resistant to spills and scratching.
Apply a thin coat of the Osmo Polyx hardwax oil to the whole piece, then with a clean cloth remove any excess.(this should be done with 15 minutes of application), if necessary on larger pieces work in sections or zones. Leave to dry for 12 hours or overnight.

Tip/Hint The cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera used for the application of this oil can be used again, place the cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera in a plastic bag, remove most of the air, seal the bag and put it in the freezer. When you want to reuse them, just let them defrost and you are ready to go.

Step 9.
Re-sand the piece again - using 320g in the direction of the grain.

Step 10.
Apply a second coat of the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, in the same manner as Step 8. Leave to dry for a minimum of 12 hours.

Step 11.
Re-sand the piece again - using 600g in the direction of the grain. If you want a higher sheen, especially for table tops, then Re-sand the piece with 1000g, then 1500g. Remove any dust and allow to dry.

Step 12.
We are now ready to apply our 1st coat of wax. We are going to use Fiddes "Mellow wax, this wax is formulated for applying onto prefinished pieces such as our sample. Whilst we can use a coloured wax, there is no real advantage in this example as the wood is so dark, the wax would not have any appreciable effect. We could also use the Fiddes "Supreme wax" just as easily, it is just that I prefer the use of the Mellow wax for this application.

Apply a light coat of wax to the piece rubbing in small circular motion, then finish off by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Ensure to remove any surplus wax before it has dried.
Leave to dry for the required time

Step 13.
Buff the piece with a clean dry soft cloth, preferably in the direction of the grain.

Step 14.
Repeat the application wax in step 12.

Step 15.
Repeat step 14. When fully buffed the work is finished - the project can now be used. However for full protection, I would prefer to leave the piece for an additional 2 weeks in cool (not cold) dry conditions, just to let the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil fully cure. (if using Oil/Varnish or Varnish, then I would leave it for 6 weeks) After this time a additional buffing, would not hurt, or even an additional light coat of wax.
Thanks very much for all the extra effort Tony.
This is definitely a keeper.

Bob
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 2

Application of Wax on top of another medium.

Before we get too much into this part, there are a few things we have to consider about the wood we are using for our project, especially if we want a high shine on the project.

OPEN/CLOSE GRAIN
Some woods, such as Oak, Mahogany and Walnut have what is called "open grain", whilst others like Cherry, Maple and Birch have what is called "close grain". The open grain woods, if not treated correctly will always give an interrupted surface, such as an orange or lemon is compared to an apple.
To overcome this problem, we need to "fill the grain" - this is easily achievable with grain filler (subject of another lecture) which are commercially available.

GRAIN ENHANCEMENT
Does the wood we want finish have some nice grain or features we want to enhance, such as a burl. If it does then we would be better of using an oil to start the process of finishing. Oils tend to enhance the grains and patterns in wood more than any other finish available.

CHANGING THE COLOUR
Does the wood need to be stained? Why do we stain wood - 2 main reasons firstly to alter the appearance of the wood, Alder or Aspen to look like Walnut or Mahogany. Secondly and probably more importantly to balance the colour of the same wood but from a different plank/board i.e adjacent glued up boards (subject of another lecture).

For this demonstration I am using a piece of White Oak (open Grain), which we want to be darker than the natural colour, we also want it to have a medium to high shine, with good protection against food, wine and some heat resistance.

Step 1.
Sand the piece to be protected starting at 80g, then 120g, 180, 240g , ensuring that you sand with the grain wherever possible.

Step 2.
Clean the piece of all dust, ensure that all traces of glue have been removed.

Step 3
Apply the stain and leave to dry. Note if using a NGR (Non Grain Raining) stain then Step 4 can be omitted.

Step 4
Sand the entire project again with 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain. This is to remove any grain that might have been "raised" during the staining process (especially prevalent with water based stains)

Step 5.
Apply the grain filler (you should use a darker filler than the final colour you want to achieve, this will allow for the natural darkening of the project to blend with the filler in a short time.) in small circular motion, leave the filler to dry. Using a clean piece of sacking wipe the excess filler of the work piece ensure you wipe across the grain, NOT with the grain.

Step 6.
Re-sand the piece again - using 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain.

Step 7 (Optional)
Re-apply a coat of stain (optional) as in step 3. This maybe may be necessary, if you have removed too much wood during the sanding process or if you want to make the project darker/fuller in colour.

Step 8.
We now apply our first protective coating - this could be oil, varnish, Oil/varnish mix, shellac or some other medium. This coating is going to give us the high degree of protection we need for everyday use.

I have used Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, as it is one of the easiest to apply, gives a superb finish and very resistant to spills and scratching.
Apply a thin coat of the Osmo Polyx hardwax oil to the whole piece, then with a clean cloth remove any excess.(this should be done with 15 minutes of application), if necessary on larger pieces work in sections or zones. Leave to dry for 12 hours or overnight.

Tip/Hint The cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera used for the application of this oil can be used again, place the cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera in a plastic bag, remove most of the air, seal the bag and put it in the freezer. When you want to reuse them, just let them defrost and you are ready to go.

Step 9.
Re-sand the piece again - using 320g in the direction of the grain.

Step 10.
Apply a second coat of the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, in the same manner as Step 8. Leave to dry for a minimum of 12 hours.

Step 11.
Re-sand the piece again - using 600g in the direction of the grain. If you want a higher sheen, especially for table tops, then Re-sand the piece with 1000g, then 1500g. Remove any dust and allow to dry.

Step 12.
We are now ready to apply our 1st coat of wax. We are going to use Fiddes "Mellow wax, this wax is formulated for applying onto prefinished pieces such as our sample. Whilst we can use a coloured wax, there is no real advantage in this example as the wood is so dark, the wax would not have any appreciable effect. We could also use the Fiddes "Supreme wax" just as easily, it is just that I prefer the use of the Mellow wax for this application.

Apply a light coat of wax to the piece rubbing in small circular motion, then finish off by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Ensure to remove any surplus wax before it has dried.
Leave to dry for the required time

Step 13.
Buff the piece with a clean dry soft cloth, preferably in the direction of the grain.

Step 14.
Repeat the application wax in step 12.

Step 15.
Repeat step 14. When fully buffed the work is finished - the project can now be used. However for full protection, I would prefer to leave the piece for an additional 2 weeks in cool (not cold) dry conditions, just to let the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil fully cure. (if using Oil/Varnish or Varnish, then I would leave it for 6 weeks) After this time a additional buffing, would not hurt, or even an additional light coat of wax.
I am printing these out. Thanks again.
 

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Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 2

Application of Wax on top of another medium.

Before we get too much into this part, there are a few things we have to consider about the wood we are using for our project, especially if we want a high shine on the project.

OPEN/CLOSE GRAIN
Some woods, such as Oak, Mahogany and Walnut have what is called "open grain", whilst others like Cherry, Maple and Birch have what is called "close grain". The open grain woods, if not treated correctly will always give an interrupted surface, such as an orange or lemon is compared to an apple.
To overcome this problem, we need to "fill the grain" - this is easily achievable with grain filler (subject of another lecture) which are commercially available.

GRAIN ENHANCEMENT
Does the wood we want finish have some nice grain or features we want to enhance, such as a burl. If it does then we would be better of using an oil to start the process of finishing. Oils tend to enhance the grains and patterns in wood more than any other finish available.

CHANGING THE COLOUR
Does the wood need to be stained? Why do we stain wood - 2 main reasons firstly to alter the appearance of the wood, Alder or Aspen to look like Walnut or Mahogany. Secondly and probably more importantly to balance the colour of the same wood but from a different plank/board i.e adjacent glued up boards (subject of another lecture).

For this demonstration I am using a piece of White Oak (open Grain), which we want to be darker than the natural colour, we also want it to have a medium to high shine, with good protection against food, wine and some heat resistance.

Step 1.
Sand the piece to be protected starting at 80g, then 120g, 180, 240g , ensuring that you sand with the grain wherever possible.

Step 2.
Clean the piece of all dust, ensure that all traces of glue have been removed.

Step 3
Apply the stain and leave to dry. Note if using a NGR (Non Grain Raining) stain then Step 4 can be omitted.

Step 4
Sand the entire project again with 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain. This is to remove any grain that might have been "raised" during the staining process (especially prevalent with water based stains)

Step 5.
Apply the grain filler (you should use a darker filler than the final colour you want to achieve, this will allow for the natural darkening of the project to blend with the filler in a short time.) in small circular motion, leave the filler to dry. Using a clean piece of sacking wipe the excess filler of the work piece ensure you wipe across the grain, NOT with the grain.

Step 6.
Re-sand the piece again - using 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain.

Step 7 (Optional)
Re-apply a coat of stain (optional) as in step 3. This maybe may be necessary, if you have removed too much wood during the sanding process or if you want to make the project darker/fuller in colour.

Step 8.
We now apply our first protective coating - this could be oil, varnish, Oil/varnish mix, shellac or some other medium. This coating is going to give us the high degree of protection we need for everyday use.

I have used Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, as it is one of the easiest to apply, gives a superb finish and very resistant to spills and scratching.
Apply a thin coat of the Osmo Polyx hardwax oil to the whole piece, then with a clean cloth remove any excess.(this should be done with 15 minutes of application), if necessary on larger pieces work in sections or zones. Leave to dry for 12 hours or overnight.

Tip/Hint The cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera used for the application of this oil can be used again, place the cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera in a plastic bag, remove most of the air, seal the bag and put it in the freezer. When you want to reuse them, just let them defrost and you are ready to go.

Step 9.
Re-sand the piece again - using 320g in the direction of the grain.

Step 10.
Apply a second coat of the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, in the same manner as Step 8. Leave to dry for a minimum of 12 hours.

Step 11.
Re-sand the piece again - using 600g in the direction of the grain. If you want a higher sheen, especially for table tops, then Re-sand the piece with 1000g, then 1500g. Remove any dust and allow to dry.

Step 12.
We are now ready to apply our 1st coat of wax. We are going to use Fiddes "Mellow wax, this wax is formulated for applying onto prefinished pieces such as our sample. Whilst we can use a coloured wax, there is no real advantage in this example as the wood is so dark, the wax would not have any appreciable effect. We could also use the Fiddes "Supreme wax" just as easily, it is just that I prefer the use of the Mellow wax for this application.

Apply a light coat of wax to the piece rubbing in small circular motion, then finish off by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Ensure to remove any surplus wax before it has dried.
Leave to dry for the required time

Step 13.
Buff the piece with a clean dry soft cloth, preferably in the direction of the grain.

Step 14.
Repeat the application wax in step 12.

Step 15.
Repeat step 14. When fully buffed the work is finished - the project can now be used. However for full protection, I would prefer to leave the piece for an additional 2 weeks in cool (not cold) dry conditions, just to let the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil fully cure. (if using Oil/Varnish or Varnish, then I would leave it for 6 weeks) After this time a additional buffing, would not hurt, or even an additional light coat of wax.
I have a ("newbie") question about treating open-grain wood. I understand the analogy you made (oranges and apples), but I wonder if one wanted to have this uneven look, would there be any other negative consequences by not using a grain filler for oak?
 

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Discussion Starter · #14 ·
Finishing with Wax & Oil Pt 2

Application of Wax on top of another medium.

Before we get too much into this part, there are a few things we have to consider about the wood we are using for our project, especially if we want a high shine on the project.

OPEN/CLOSE GRAIN
Some woods, such as Oak, Mahogany and Walnut have what is called "open grain", whilst others like Cherry, Maple and Birch have what is called "close grain". The open grain woods, if not treated correctly will always give an interrupted surface, such as an orange or lemon is compared to an apple.
To overcome this problem, we need to "fill the grain" - this is easily achievable with grain filler (subject of another lecture) which are commercially available.

GRAIN ENHANCEMENT
Does the wood we want finish have some nice grain or features we want to enhance, such as a burl. If it does then we would be better of using an oil to start the process of finishing. Oils tend to enhance the grains and patterns in wood more than any other finish available.

CHANGING THE COLOUR
Does the wood need to be stained? Why do we stain wood - 2 main reasons firstly to alter the appearance of the wood, Alder or Aspen to look like Walnut or Mahogany. Secondly and probably more importantly to balance the colour of the same wood but from a different plank/board i.e adjacent glued up boards (subject of another lecture).

For this demonstration I am using a piece of White Oak (open Grain), which we want to be darker than the natural colour, we also want it to have a medium to high shine, with good protection against food, wine and some heat resistance.

Step 1.
Sand the piece to be protected starting at 80g, then 120g, 180, 240g , ensuring that you sand with the grain wherever possible.

Step 2.
Clean the piece of all dust, ensure that all traces of glue have been removed.

Step 3
Apply the stain and leave to dry. Note if using a NGR (Non Grain Raining) stain then Step 4 can be omitted.

Step 4
Sand the entire project again with 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain. This is to remove any grain that might have been "raised" during the staining process (especially prevalent with water based stains)

Step 5.
Apply the grain filler (you should use a darker filler than the final colour you want to achieve, this will allow for the natural darkening of the project to blend with the filler in a short time.) in small circular motion, leave the filler to dry. Using a clean piece of sacking wipe the excess filler of the work piece ensure you wipe across the grain, NOT with the grain.

Step 6.
Re-sand the piece again - using 240g (or the highest grit you used in Step 1) in the direction of the grain.

Step 7 (Optional)
Re-apply a coat of stain (optional) as in step 3. This maybe may be necessary, if you have removed too much wood during the sanding process or if you want to make the project darker/fuller in colour.

Step 8.
We now apply our first protective coating - this could be oil, varnish, Oil/varnish mix, shellac or some other medium. This coating is going to give us the high degree of protection we need for everyday use.

I have used Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, as it is one of the easiest to apply, gives a superb finish and very resistant to spills and scratching.
Apply a thin coat of the Osmo Polyx hardwax oil to the whole piece, then with a clean cloth remove any excess.(this should be done with 15 minutes of application), if necessary on larger pieces work in sections or zones. Leave to dry for 12 hours or overnight.

Tip/Hint The cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera used for the application of this oil can be used again, place the cloths, brushes, sponges etcetera in a plastic bag, remove most of the air, seal the bag and put it in the freezer. When you want to reuse them, just let them defrost and you are ready to go.

Step 9.
Re-sand the piece again - using 320g in the direction of the grain.

Step 10.
Apply a second coat of the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil, in the same manner as Step 8. Leave to dry for a minimum of 12 hours.

Step 11.
Re-sand the piece again - using 600g in the direction of the grain. If you want a higher sheen, especially for table tops, then Re-sand the piece with 1000g, then 1500g. Remove any dust and allow to dry.

Step 12.
We are now ready to apply our 1st coat of wax. We are going to use Fiddes "Mellow wax, this wax is formulated for applying onto prefinished pieces such as our sample. Whilst we can use a coloured wax, there is no real advantage in this example as the wood is so dark, the wax would not have any appreciable effect. We could also use the Fiddes "Supreme wax" just as easily, it is just that I prefer the use of the Mellow wax for this application.

Apply a light coat of wax to the piece rubbing in small circular motion, then finish off by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Ensure to remove any surplus wax before it has dried.
Leave to dry for the required time

Step 13.
Buff the piece with a clean dry soft cloth, preferably in the direction of the grain.

Step 14.
Repeat the application wax in step 12.

Step 15.
Repeat step 14. When fully buffed the work is finished - the project can now be used. However for full protection, I would prefer to leave the piece for an additional 2 weeks in cool (not cold) dry conditions, just to let the Osmo Polyx Hardwax oil fully cure. (if using Oil/Varnish or Varnish, then I would leave it for 6 weeks) After this time a additional buffing, would not hurt, or even an additional light coat of wax.
Hi DrTebi

To answer you question briefly - NO, there are no major negative consequences - apart from that over time you may get a build up of wax and dirt in the grain, but that is purely cosmetic.
 

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Discussion Starter · #15 ·
MAINTENANCE OF WORK PIECES.

The frequency of which you maintain the work piece depends upon the usage, the type of wood and the type of finish used.

Regular dusting, preferably with a static duster or feather type cleaner. Using a normal cloth can scratch the finish.

Try re-buffing the project, if a shine cannot be achieved, then apply a light coat of wax, allow the wax to dry, then rebuff the project to restore its full glory.

If the work piece looks dull, especially if using Tongue Oil on Oak, then an application of wax maybe necessary after 2 - 3 months, and again after 6 months. This because the oil is still drying and being absorbed into the wood. After the 6 month period you should not have to worry about this phenomena, and routine maintenance should be sufficient.

DO NOT.
Use aerosol furniture polish. Most of these polishes contain silicone, which is detrimental to the natural waxes used.
use detergents or water - if the piece becomes sticky or dried on dirt is present, then use a damp cloth to wipe away the dirt, allow it to dry and then reapply a the wax.

Do not place the item to close to a fire or heater - the heat will damage the wood and melt/soften the wax.

Try to keep real wooden projects out of strong direct sunlight.
 

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MAINTENANCE OF WORK PIECES.

The frequency of which you maintain the work piece depends upon the usage, the type of wood and the type of finish used.

Regular dusting, preferably with a static duster or feather type cleaner. Using a normal cloth can scratch the finish.

Try re-buffing the project, if a shine cannot be achieved, then apply a light coat of wax, allow the wax to dry, then rebuff the project to restore its full glory.

If the work piece looks dull, especially if using Tongue Oil on Oak, then an application of wax maybe necessary after 2 - 3 months, and again after 6 months. This because the oil is still drying and being absorbed into the wood. After the 6 month period you should not have to worry about this phenomena, and routine maintenance should be sufficient.

DO NOT.
Use aerosol furniture polish. Most of these polishes contain silicone, which is detrimental to the natural waxes used.
use detergents or water - if the piece becomes sticky or dried on dirt is present, then use a damp cloth to wipe away the dirt, allow it to dry and then reapply a the wax.

Do not place the item to close to a fire or heater - the heat will damage the wood and melt/soften the wax.

Try to keep real wooden projects out of strong direct sunlight.
Thanks for the series Tony. I really appreciated reading it.
 

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MAINTENANCE OF WORK PIECES.

The frequency of which you maintain the work piece depends upon the usage, the type of wood and the type of finish used.

Regular dusting, preferably with a static duster or feather type cleaner. Using a normal cloth can scratch the finish.

Try re-buffing the project, if a shine cannot be achieved, then apply a light coat of wax, allow the wax to dry, then rebuff the project to restore its full glory.

If the work piece looks dull, especially if using Tongue Oil on Oak, then an application of wax maybe necessary after 2 - 3 months, and again after 6 months. This because the oil is still drying and being absorbed into the wood. After the 6 month period you should not have to worry about this phenomena, and routine maintenance should be sufficient.

DO NOT.
Use aerosol furniture polish. Most of these polishes contain silicone, which is detrimental to the natural waxes used.
use detergents or water - if the piece becomes sticky or dried on dirt is present, then use a damp cloth to wipe away the dirt, allow it to dry and then reapply a the wax.

Do not place the item to close to a fire or heater - the heat will damage the wood and melt/soften the wax.

Try to keep real wooden projects out of strong direct sunlight.
Great series of posts. Hope there are more to come. THANKS!!!!!!
 
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