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Carvings in the interior and on the walls of the palace

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Blog entry by VobliX posted 08-07-2019 10:39 AM 290 reads 0 times favorited 0 comments Add to Favorites Watch

The art of the XVIII century, relying on the original art of ancient Russia, developing its best traditions, had a huge impact on the development of world art culture.

At this time, Russia’s ties with other states became wider. Peter I, understanding the importance and importance for Russia of mastering the best achievements of Western science and art, sent capable young people abroad to study. Foreign scientists and specialists in various fields of art were invited to Russia. Of the arrivals, many were known in Europe.

The most gifted of foreign artists, understanding the greatness of the plans for the reorganization of the Russian state, subdued by the directness and sincerity of the character of the Russian man, his mind and talent, sincerely fell in love with Russia, having connected her whole life with it. It was in Russia that their work was truly revealed and many artistic ideas were realized, therefore, what they created in Russia is associated with the development of Russian national culture and carries features inherent in the nature and characteristics of Russian art.

Russian communication with such advanced countries at that time as Holland, Germany and France significantly accelerated the process of Russia’s transformation and led to the strengthening of the power of the Russian state.

Since the beginning of the XVIII century. Russian art becomes predominantly secular. If earlier mainly cathedrals, royal chambers, boyar mansions were built, now they began to build civil and administrative buildings with spacious light rooms, surrounded by well-planned gardens.

Church and palace buildings were notable for their strictness and simplicity of architectural forms. Their appearance resembled Western European buildings.

The efforts of many remarkable Russian and foreign masters created outstanding monuments of Russian architecture: the Peter and Paul Cathedral (1722-1726, architect I.P. Zarudny), the Summer Palace in St. Petersburg (architect Schlüter), the palace and park ensemble in Peterhof – the Grand Petersburg Palace , palaces Monplaisir, Marly, Hermitage. Architects I. Braunstein, J. Leblon, N. Miketti, P. E. Eropkin and M. G. Zemtsov took part in the construction of the Peterhof Ensemble of the time.

Along with various types of artistic processing, wood carving occupies a special place. The iconostases of churches, interiors of palaces, merchant ships, furniture, and small household items decorated the carvings. In addition, the art of woodcarving was used in other types of crafts: for decorating fabrics, for obtaining relief ceramic tiles, engraving, gingerbread, etc. In short, carving as a type of decorative form had a definite effect on other art industries.

The civilian nature of construction, the efficiency and practical orientation of architecture also determined the characteristic features of the decorative art of this time. If earlier the basis of the artistic decision was a relatively small and magnificent ornamentation, which completely covers the surface of the subject itself, then at the beginning of the XVIII century a clear simple decorative technique was combined with the ideological and artistic design of the plot, emphasizing the real secular nature of the image.

A brilliant example of such an artistic solution is the carved iconostasis of the Peter and Paul Cathedral, created by Russian masters led by Trofim Ivanov and Ivan Telegin, designed by architect I.P. Zarudny1. It reveals with extraordinary skill the ideological reputation of the work, thoughts and feelings that worried the Russian man at that time, his desire to overcome church canons, to give the composition a free secular character.

The iconostasis is a slender golden arch, freely resting on the abutments in the form of side pylons. A complexly shaped carved entablature is supported by columns of the Corinthian order. The top of the arch is crowned with complex architectural elements, the folds of heavy l fabric, framed by a fringe with tassels, skillfully carved from wood fall from the bottom. In the center on the sides on the pedestals are figures of angels. The openwork, easily rising arch with polysyllabic architectural details, with large and lush carvings testifies to new principles of decorative decoration of church buildings, new ornamental forms and new techniques of wood carving.

The iconostasis carving of the late XVII and early XVIII centuries had a definite influence on the development of “ship” carving. The shipbuilding that unfolded in the first quarter of the 18th century attracted a large number of craftsmen who knew carpentry, carpentry and carving. The craftsmen, gathered from different parts of Russia, contributed to the shipbuilding once acquired skills and artistic traditions.

The nature of the ships themselves and the “ship” carvings of that time can be judged by the surviving details of the ships, by models and some drawings. The vessels in Peter’s time had a rich decoration. The bow of the ship was usually decorated with sculptural details (a lion standing on its hind legs with its mouth open, or a human figure dressed in military armor, etc.); along the side adjacent to the nose, there were brackets in the form of female figures, male heads, caryatids. The stern of the vessel was more elegant, carved decorations were placed on the frieze and consisted of pilasters, brackets, plant forms and shells. In addition to these decorations, such decorations as cartouches, military attributes, and plot compositions were performed, which included sea deities, dolphins, tretons. The hull was painted in bright colors, and the thread was covered with gilding.

Decorative ornaments are usually an allegory glorifying the power of the Russian fleet, the glory of the Russian state.

Ship carvers, well aware of the purpose of carved jewelry, decided to boldly, in a free decorative manner. Close up, they were clearly visible from a long distance.

Ancient Russian ships, yachts, bots, in which the general decision of carved decoration was harmoniously combined with the architectural forms of the vessel, were genuine works of folk art.

Attracting the best masters of that time to the decoration of the palace premises, Peter I sought to create an environment that meets the new way of life. According to Andrei Nartov, “Peter I did not like any pomp, splendor, and many minions,” therefore, the decoration of the best palace buildings of the early 18th century and their furnishings bear traces of great artistic taste in the absence of special solemnity and luxury.

Many interiors of the Summer Palace are decorated with wood, the cabinet of Peter I in the St. Petersburg Palace, the palaces of Monplaisir, the Hermitage and Marley, where art carved panels are one of the main decorations.

The wooden wall cladding of these rooms reaches the ceiling and is divided into panels, identical or different in size and shape, but always harmonious. The upper part of the casing is framed by a complexly profiled cornice, and the lower part is by a panel or baseboard. Seams are closed with bars of a less complex profile, wall panels and panels have a smoothly processed surface or are decorated with carvings.

Frames are also decorated with carvings for mirrors, paintings and wall carpets – tapestries.

Doors were made single and double, deaf and glazed. Door leaflets were divided into two or three panels of various sizes, compositionally subordinate to the general decision of the walls. The doorway was framed by a profiled platband, placed on the bedside tables. Glazed dzieri often had a semicircular top decorated with a grating that was characteristic of that time. The over-door decoration was also solved in the form of a carved panel.

Oak wall paneling and carvings are tinted in dark color and waxed.

The wooden walls of the lobby of the Summer Palace of Peter the Great are an example of the skillful use of wood for decorative purposes. The lobby’s eye decoration is a carved decorative panel depicting Minerva – the goddess of wisdom, the patroness of sciences, arts and crafts. A slender figure, placed on a pedestal, is enclosed in a wide profiled frame with rhythmically repeating ornaments. The semicircular completion of the frame is decorated with shells, currencies and a female head.

Composition, plastic forms speak of great skill of performers. The panel was made by Russian masters according to the project of architect Schluter.

The walls of the lobby, being a kind of background for the panel, are divided by pilasters into piers with inserted panels with a figured layout. Flat pilasters end with carved capitals. Beautiful in shape chiseled balusters of stairs with carved decorations.

The wall cladding of oak and flat rooms in the Marly Palace (Fig. 14) was made according to the designs of architect N. Braunshtein, and the carpentry and carvings were performed by Russian masters under the direction of P. Sakulsky. Cabinets are distinguished by strict composition and laconic form of carved jewelry. For example, the Oak office of the palace is treated with narrow panels, divided in height by a profiled bar into two parts, the upper large and lower small. Between panels are windows and mirrors. The windows are closed with a platband of a simple figured pattern, reaching the floor. Mirrors have built-in frames topped with carved decorations.

Carved jewelry in the form of currencies and acanthus leaves with a fine modeling of forms found application in the decoration of the Monplaisir Palace. The oak panels stack and dzieri are carved in the Main Hall, Marine Office, secretary room, western and eastern galleries.

The Lacquer Cabinet of the Monplaisir Palace, designed by architect Braunstein, is decorated with great originality. It is essentially a small museum. The main decoration of the cabinet is painted lacquer panels painted in the style of Chinese art. The panel is framed by wooden frames, trimmed with red lacquer, with an elegantly carved decoration.

On the free parts of the walls are carved shelves made in the style of Western European carving and are distinguished by a great subtlety of work. Shelves are decorated with fingertips, currencies, shells, women’s heads and floral motifs. Gilded consoles shelves contain collections of Chinese and Japanese porcelain.

The carving was performed by the masters of the Armory under the supervision of the artists Rust and Fole, the lacquer panels painted the “lacquer work apprentices” icon painters Ivan Nikiforov, Porfiry Fedorov, Ivan Tikhonov, Ivan Polyakov and others.

The Oak office of Peter the Great in the Peterhof Grand Palace enjoys well-deserved fame. The initial decoration of the cabinet has remained unchanged and represents the typical interior of Peter’s Baroque. The cabinet was designed by architect J. Leblon1 and was completed in 1721.

Carved jewelry, which is the main advantage of the cabinet, was developed by a remarkable French artist, master of carving Nikolai Pino, named in Russia Pinoziy. The creative activity of this artist is very diverse. As an excellent draftsman, he created more ornamental sculptures.

In addition to decorating the walls of the Oak Office of Peter I, Pino worked on the interior decoration of the walls of the cabinet of the Marley Palace and the Japanese Cabinet in the Monplaisir Palace. Judging by the surviving drawings, Nikolai Pino designed jewelry for the ship and furniture.

Carved panels of the cabinet of Peter I in each case have their own finished composition. The panels consist of allegorical images of the seasons, military armor, attributes of art, trade and craft, symbolic motives of justice, wisdom, strength, shells, mascarons, glorifying the successes of Russia. Fantastic motifs of carved jewelry made in a low relief create a fancy play of chiaroscuro, revealing the plastic virtues of carved ornamentation, a great art of performance.

The composition of the double door of the Oak Office is harmoniously linked to the design of the wall cladding. Each door leaf is divided into three different-sized panels. The upper panel is decorated with floral ornaments, the middle, largest, has a rich decoration, consisting of mascaron, complex curls of a floral motif, forming a symmetrical closed composition. The doorway is closed with a platband of elegant profile. The expressiveness of the composition and the thoroughness of the drawing of details is distinguished by the overhead decoration depicting a censer, mascaron, winged dragons, garlands of leaves and fruit. A single profile picture of layouts of panels, walls and doors subordinates decorative forms to one common compositional solution.

Some details of the interiors were decorated with carvings. Of great artistic interest is the oak lattice and the brackets of the balcony of the Hermitage pavilion in Peterhof. The oak lattice was made according to the drawings of Nikolai Pino and made by him on the pattern of the lattice on the stern of the ship Ingerman-Landia. The forms of the wooden balustrade of the stairs of the Summer Palace in St. Petersburg are expressive. Wood carvings adorned the capitals of columns, pilasters and other parts of the interior.

Silver chandeliers, tiled stoves, paintings of seascapes, furniture arranged along the walls, upholstered in red morocco, against the background of the oak panels of the walls, mirrors with wonderful carvings made up a unique unity of the atmosphere of the first quarter of the 16th century.

Russian decorative art of the middle of the XVI century takes the most striking stylistic orientation. Russian architects of this time V.V. Rastrelli, S. I, Chevakinsky, D.V. Ukhtomsky, I.F. Michurin, A.V. Kvasov and a whole galaxy of Russian masters who worked with them perfectly master all means of skill and artistic expression contemporary European architecture and build a number of outstanding architectural works in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev and other cities of Russia.

The palaces and temples of this time are distinguished by the splendor of plastic and decorative processing. With exceptional luxury and splendor, the interiors of buildings are decorated.

The small, restrained rooms of Peter’s time are replaced by enfilades of huge ornate halls, wide front staircases, and an exquisite layout of household items.

Organic communication pervades the entire interior. Wall decor, monumental ceiling painting, typeset parquet represent the ensemble, complemented by a variety of household items. In strictly defined places, fixtures, porcelain vases, mirrors, ceremonial portraits, furniture are installed. Palace furniture was not only closely linked to the interior decoration, but also met court etiquette and costume of the time. Door and window openings become larger, glazed doors lead to the park or garden, creating a direct connection of the interior with nature. Trying to illusorically expand the space of halls and rooms, the walls are decorated with a large number of mirrors, often placed against each other. Ceiling painting with its compositional techniques and color schemes also weakens the impression of limited space. Composing parquet appears everywhere

The use of wood for decorative purposes has a significant place. Walls, ceilings, doors, panels, mirrors, paintings and floors adorn with wood. A special place in the decorative interiors is given to carvings.

In connection with the large scale of carving, special workshops were opened on the Volga, near forests. Linden and birch were pre-impregnated with linseed and hemp oil, and then carved. Carved parts prepared in this way were sent to the capital, where they were covered with colored gesso, gilded and set in place.

An exceptionally high level of wooden carvings at this time largely determines the nature of the decoration of the palace premises. Carved decor completely fills the walls, paddubs of ceilings, frames windows and doors, mirrors. Ornate carved furniture.

Carved cartouches, currencies, figures of women, cupids, shells, intertwined with garlands of flowers curls and flame-like motifs create a fabulous, unique ornamental world in their combinations.

The doorway is usually closed with a narrow platband and framed on the sides with a decorative sculpture and high relief carvings. Especially richly ornamented are the desuportes. Doors and slopes of the doorway are painted white and decorated with curved layouts and carved cuts in the form of masks and shells, combining with smoothly alternating curls of acanthus and flowers.

Low wooden panels on top and bottom are laid out with profiled rods and ornamented, just like doors. Wall mirrors, being one of the main elements of the decoration of the premises, occupied large piers. They were decorated with gilded frames of curved shapes. Often, a small table called a console was attached to a wall mirror.

The art of wood carving in the middle of the XVII ! century reaches its peak. Lush gilded carving becomes the defining form of artistic decoration both in the palace premises and in the temples. A characteristic feature of carved compositions is a free asymmetric construction. Complex curvilinear forms of ornamentation, full of unexpected combinations, repeating, create a bizarre play of chiaroscuro. Gilding enhanced the richness of carved ornaments and gave the interior architecture a special solemnity, emotional elation. Despite the asymmetry, the seeming randomness in the methods of compositional decision of the decor, the balance, artistic unity, submission to a certain design are visible in everything.

Highly performing craftsmanship of carved jewelry. Russian masters, despite the complexity of the design and the fragility of the material, with seemingly ease with great sculptural clarity cut the thinnest branches, leaves, flowers, revealing the nature and shape of the motive. The high relief of the carved decoration, sometimes reaching the full volume, is Alodelized by the craftsman in such a way that provides clarity of perception of the part from any point.

The baroque style of the mid- 18th century is expressed by the great architect V.V. Rastrelli. In the work of Rastrelli, the characteristic features inherent in Russian decorative art are pronounced. Rastrelli creates a number of interiors, different in their decoration. All of them are brilliantly solved according to the compositional design and artistic unity of the decor. The richness of decorative finishes is combined with the clarity and clarity of the decision of plans for building the interior.

The peak of Rastrelli’s creativity is the interiors of the Catherine’s Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, especially the decoration of the Great Hall, where carved sparkling gilding are freely and picturesquely arranged on the white surface of the walls, forming a unique and beautifully carved decoration. The general nature of the design corresponded to the ceiling painting developed by the artist Valeriiani on the theme “Triumph of Russia”, and the typeset parquet made according to Rastrelli’s drawings. The light coming in a wide stream from the windows and glazed doors, reflected on the golden decor, increased the beauty and richness of carved decorations, giving the hall a great elegance and festivity.

Rastrelli perfectly understood the decorative features of Russian carving, appreciated the enormous skill of Russian carvers and used this type of art, creating unique examples in the field of woodworking.

Rastrelli also created carved iconostases, magnificent in composition and decoration, in church interiors, continuing and developing the best traditions of Russian iconostasis carvings of the 17th century. The iconostases created by Rastrelli amaze with originality and courage of decisions, with a variety of motives and techniques for performing carved decor. The decorative features of the compositions of the iconostasis carvings, made according to Rastrelli’s drawings, for a long time served as an example for the master of carved art.

Wooden carved decor was widely used by other Russian architects of the middle of the XVIIIat. with the decoration of both secular and church interiors. Architects such as I. Michurin and others, obeying the general stylistic direction of that Burden, expressed their inherent individual characteristics in their work. Of great interest are carved jewelry designed by D. Ukhtomsky and A. Yevlashev for the interiors of the Golovinsky Palace in Moscow. Amazing in composition, the three-tier iconostasis of the Clement Church on Pyatnitskaya Street, where carpentry profiles, turning and carved details are harmoniously combined. By its forms, it resembles the iconostasis in the Peter and Paul Cathedral of the architect Zarudny. The iconostases with the carved decor and the altar canopy of St. Nicholas Cathedral in St. Petersburg were designed by S. Chevakinsky. These and other examples speak not only about the widespread use of wood carvings in mid-architectureXVIII century., But also about the breadth of creative ideas, about the variety of motives and techniques used, about the individual craftsmanship of people who created these amazingly beautiful examples of carved art.

In addition to architects, a large army of Russian and foreign masters worked in the decoration of palace and church interiors. About a hundred Russian woodcarvers worked only on the interior decoration of the Tsarskoye Selo Palace.

Of the foreigners, the gifted artist and skilled organizer of the work was Johann Dunker, who personally led the carvings on the Volga. He made models and set carved decor in place. Osip Stahlmeier, Louis Rolland, Daniel Korlozsky and Girardon also took a large part. With their participation, many interiors were decorated in St. Petersburg and in its suburbs.

Of the Russian master craftsmen who not only knew woodcarving well, who performed the work and led the crews of carvers, Sergey Khabarov, Alexander Chanov, Okhotinsky craftsmen Peter Valekhin and Dmitry Sakulisny, Ignatiy Kanaev, Danila Ignatiev and Ivan Sukhoi, Moscow carvers who worked mainly with the architect D. Ukhtomsky2 – Ivan (father), Vasily, Mikhail and Ivan (sons) Zimin, Yakoz Ilyin and Alexey Sukin.

In the 60-70s of the XVIII century in Russian architecture, a departure from the artistic tasks of the previous period is planned. Architects gradually abandon the elegant splendor of the decorative design of buildings. Architecture takes more strict, concise forms. The architectural structures of this time characterize new ways of development of Russian architecture and clearly reflect the transition period to the art of the classics of the second half of the 18th century.

In the decorative decoration of the interiors the features inherent in the middle of the 18th century are still pronounced , however, in the compositional techniques of the decoration of the premises, traces of great restraint, laconicism and simplicity are visible. These changes indicate the formation of a new style of Russian architecture of the second half of the XVIII century.

One of the leading architects of this time, who reflected in his work the formation of a new direction in architecture, was a wonderful master, a great connoisseur of decorative and applied art, Antonio Rinaldi. In his best buildings, Rinaldi refuses some of the techniques of interior decoration of the previous period. The architect does not strive for the illusory expansion of the limited space of the interior, for magnificent decorativeness, covering ornamental details and furnishings with rich gilding. In his buildings, he with great sophistication and knowledge, attracting a variety of decorative materials, creates amazing examples of the interior decoration of the palace premises. Due to its decorative properties, wood is widely used and, depending on the task, is subjected to various artistic processing.

In one of his earliest buildings in the palace of Peter III (1758-1762), Rinaldi is widely used in wood, decorating them with doors, doorways, panels and parquet.

The bicentral dzeri of the palace is enclosed in a platband of simple profiling. Door leafs are painted in light red and decorated with carvings. Miniature paintings on Chinese subjects are created inside the carved ornament.

Similar decorative solutions have door lintels. The walls of the rooms are decorated with wood panels of small height. The panel panels, as well as the doors, depict scenes from Chinese life. Picturesque miniatures are framed by carved frames consisting of plant curls. The motifs for paintings are landscapes, various architectural structures, fantastic birds, winged beetles, butterflies, dragonflies, geometric shapes of various shapes, vignettes and rosettes. Picturesque images on interior details are arranged differently: vertically on doors and side door slopes, horizontally on panel panels. Despite the uniformity of the compositional composition of the plots of many miniatures, they in each case are distinguished by originality and originality.

Murals on wooden parts of the interior in the palace of Peter III are a rare occurrence in the field of woodworking.

The painting on doors, panels and door slopes, performed under the direction and with the participation of “varnish master” Fedor Vlasov, totals a total of 213 different compositions and covers an area of ​​about 70 m2.

The thread used in the decoration of the interior is made in a low relief. It consists of stylized branches, leaves and shells. Of the masters who performed the carvings in the palace of Peter III , we know Dmitry Ivanov, Semyon Firsov, Dmitry Mikhailov and Pavel Durnoglasov.

When decorating the rooms of the Chinese Palace according to Rinaldi’s drawings, carved frames and over-door decorations were made, among which the most interesting are the frames for mirrors and glass beads, made of solid wood in the form of palm trunks interwoven with a garland of flowers.

Architecture and decorative art reached an unprecedented peak at the end of the XVill century. Instead of decorative splendor and wealth comes calm poise and noble simplicity of forms. The unity of expediency and beauty is becoming the main artistic feature of the new style.

The ingenious architects V. I. Bazhenov1, M. F. Kazakov, I. S. Starov, Giacomo Quarenghi, Charles Cameron and others, relying on the traditions of national architecture, critically using the artistic principles of ancient and world classics, create outstanding works of classical architecture.

V. I. Bazhenov erects Pashkov’s house of remarkable beauty, creates a design and model of the Grand Kremlin Palace. M.F. Kazakov is constructing the Column Hall of the large noble assembly in Moscow, I.S. Starov is building the Tauride Palace in St. Petersburg, Quarenghi is the Hermitage Theater, etc.

Many large landowners and merchants, trying not to concede to the royal court, city nobles, built real palaces on their estates, such as palaces in Kuskovo and Ostankino (Count Sheremetyev), Demidov’s house in Moscow, Arkhangelsk (Prince Yusupov), Moscow Palace of Prince Kurakin , the palace of Count Zavadovsky in the former Chernihiv province and many others.

Carvings, like decorative finishes, still give a large place. The newly opened Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg (1757) introduced the teaching of ornamental art, in particular, the study of architectural decor. The academy’s classes are taught by major experts in the field of wooden sculpture and ornamentation, such as Gillet, Lagre-ke, Torelli, Professor Louis Rolland and one of the remarkable woodcarvers of the Shzarts tree ornamentalists.

A special role in the preparation of woodworkers and woodcarvers was played by the “Expedition to rebuild the Grand Kremlin Palace” and the Model House organized at that time, where woodworking masters worked together with high experts.

Highly skilled craftsmen were in the noble estates. The landlords have always tried to use the labor of talented serf masters, preferring them to civilian craftsmen. Some landowners had their own architects, painters, decorative masters, and sometimes a theater group and musicians. In such estates as Ostankino, Arkhangelsk, there were workshops in which more than 1000 serfs of various specialties worked.

Joiner-rechitsky workshops were not only in large, but also in many medium and small-scale estates.

In the second half of the 18th century, especially at the end of the century, carpentry production increased significantly, and the network of craft workshops and handicraft enterprises expanded. Particularly famous at that time was the rechitsa workshop of the Frenchman Pavel Spol. An artist and a skilled woodcarver, he drew to work in the workshops of Russian masters. In the workshop of Spol, carvings were made for the interiors of the Demidov house in Moscow, and later part of the carvings of the Ostankino palace of Count Sheremetyev.

At the end of the XVIII century. Carving was most widely used in Moscow structures, which often retained the shape of stone structures, but were built entirely of wood. A wonderful example is the decoration of the interiors of the Demidov house in Moscow (architect AL. F. Kazakov1). Of the greatest interest in their artistic decoration are

front or “golden” rooms of the house – the Great Hall, the waitress (now non-existent), the Blue and Raspberry living rooms, a bedroom and a dressing room. Of all the rooms, the living rooms and the bedroom are the best preserved.

Artistic craftsmanship, originality associated with the early times of classicism give the interiors special beauty, and the splendor and coziness of a residential building.

The carved decor of the rooms is somewhat different from each other. The most elegant bedroom. A cozy, small room is almost entirely covered with wood carvings. Especially beautiful is the carving that adorns portals, door panels, and desu-deportations. Carved jewelry made with exquisite craftsmanship is in harmony with the color and pattern of the wall whiskers on the furniture. The ceiling painting compositionally repeats carved over-door decorations. The general decoration, representing a single ensemble, well expresses the purpose of the room.

The Blue and Raspberry living rooms, in comparison with the bedroom, have a more modest appearance, although the Raspberry living room looks somewhat richer than the Blue. The decor of these rooms, as in the front bedroom, consists of eye-shaped carvings on the walls, door portals, mirror frames and console tables. Of great interest is the frame over the mirror in the Raspberry lounge. It is made in the form of half-columns with hanging garlands of flowers. Remarkable in composition and execution carved desgadepsr-portals of rooms where skill reaches perfection.

Carved decorations of the front rooms are made in the form of arabesques, arranged in simple geometric shapes – rectangles, circles, rhombs. The simplicity and clarity of a symmetrically solved drawing, sustained on the scale of the order, give the decor a proportional harmony and consistency of all elements of the composition.

The carving is either a high relief, or a lace pattern with an elegant processing of details. She adorns the precise shape, emphasizing the constructive foundations of the subject with her drawing. Carved ornaments are solved in different ways, for example, on the desuportes, brackets and columns, they have a high relief and large shapes (on the side portals), door panels, mirror frames and various types of layouts – a slight relief, table tops, tops of mirrors and fireplace screens are decorated with through openwork carvings. Turned shapes were processed with different types of carvings – furniture legs, mirror columns, round sockets on cornices and door panels, turned beads on door trimmings and on mirror frames.

Carved ornaments, varied in appearance and plastic processing, significantly enriched the artistic expressiveness of the decor as a whole.

The ornament is based on antique forms of acanthus and laurel, censers and vases, sockets, draperies and ribbons, torches and garlands. Along with traditional classical motifs, the flora of the Moscow Region is widely reproduced: roses, tulips and poppies, dahlias and forget-me-nots, currants and gooseberries.

“Golden rooms” got their name thanks to the gilded decoration of carved decor. Gilding, which has various color shades (reddish, yellowish and greenish), with a delicate artistic taste is distributed on the carved decorations of the rooms. For example, the gilding of carved rosettes decorating the frieze of doors is reddish, the capitals of carved columns are greenish, and the carved ornaments on furniture, incense burners and vases are yellowish.

The skillful use of decorative qualities of the color of gilding not only reinforced the impression of the overall decoration of the gilded decor, but with even greater force revealed the artistic merits of carved jewelry.

The “Golden Rooms” carving, made according to a single plan and on a uniform scale, corresponded to the character of the decoration of Moscow mansions of that time and had a significant impact on the development of architectural decoration in the construction of Moscow and the Moscow Region. Sheremetev’s palace in Ostankino, now the “museum of the creation of serfs”, was built in 1797 by architects P. Argunov, N. Mironov and G. Dikushin and is considered to be the greatest work of Russian decorative and applied art.

The estate in Ostankino is the latest suburban building, built and decorated with the hands of serfs. Conceived as a “house of arts”, it presents an enfilade of halls located around the theater with an amphitheater and lodges.

The halls of the palace are rich in decoration and furnishings. Great wood carving. The capitals of the columns, the ornament decorating the doors, friezes, cornices and wall panels, sculpture, lamps and wall panels are cut from wood.

Gilding of carved jewelry is combined with tint in pink, blue and green colors, their colorfulness is close to the colorfulness of folk art.

Portals and doors of the mezzanine rooms are decorated with carvings.

The portico of the Blue Hall looks especially richly. The far-reaching cornice and frieze of the portal are supported on both sides by supports in the form of human Atlantean figures. On the ledge are wooden sculptures of sphinxes and a vase.

The portal of the corner room, where the only architectural and spatial element is a powerful cornice, is made somewhat simpler. Five carved rosettes fill the wide frieze of the portal. Exceptional craftsmanship carved pilasters adjacent to the door trim. Plant patterns framed by small peas are symmetrically arranged along the central axes of the pilasters. The finest openwork carvings of pilasters in combination with a large cut of the cornice and brackets makes the decorative decoration of the door of the room unusually rich.

Cloths, platbands and slopes of doors both in the Blue Hall and in the corner room are close by their decision. Gilded carved ornaments inscribed in rhomboid and rectangular trusses, combined with the polychrome color of the panels, give the impression of a special elegance.

The walls of the hallway and the corner room are decorated with wood paneling. Their size, decoration and color are linked to other architectural details of the walls. Room panels have the same solution. They consist of a carcass and fillets, different in shape and framed by gilded carved layouts. The cornice board is decorated with stylized leaves, and the cornice is selected by a simple molding. At the bottom, a high basement is covered by a gilt fillet. The color of the panels in the rooms is slightly different from each other.

Gilded carved frames frame the upholstery of the walls, paintings, mirrors. Frames vary in size, profiling and pattern, but as a rule, are carefully selected to the profiles and ornaments that adorn the doors and panels of this room.

In the theater mezzanine rooms along the walls are variously shaped console tables on chiseled legs with carved decorations, with malachite covers. They have vases and girandoles.

In the Blue Hall there are beautifully made wooden censers (Fig. 19) and carved floor lamps. Incense burners are made in the workshops of Pavel Spol and are distinguished by originality and grace of form. They look like a table on four straight legs.

The carriages consisting of planes are set diagonally and fastened by two rings in the crosshairs.

The underframe is ornamented on all sides by sharp branches and hanging folds of drapery. The censer bowl is decorated with cones in the form of acanthus buds. In other halls of the palace, incense burners look like a carved tripod. The best censer is in the Concert Hall. The severity of forms and the richness of ornamentation give it an extraordinary beauty. Straight tetrahedral legs have decoration in the form of decorative masks and bird feet. A censer bowl is placed on the harness, supported by the sphinxes. In the middle of the tripod, a threaded rod is placed.

A low plinth, ornamented with large peas, I stand on the legs of an ovoid shape.

The peculiarity of the floor lamps is an unusually rich carving. The bowl with profits is supported by various forms of abutments, having currencies at the top and animal hooves at the bottom, resting on a plinth with heels.

Sometimes the place of currencies is occupied by goat heads supporting a garland of flowers,

In the Ostankino Palace there are a large number of wooden carved floor lamps. Among them stand out floor lamps by masters Ivan Mochalin, Gavrila Nemkov, Ivan Mozokhin. These floor lamps are the best examples of Russian lighting devices of the late XVIII century.

From various materials in the second half of the XVIII century. made other lighting fixtures – wooden chandeliers. Wood was rarely used for this type of lamp. Some of the samples that have been preserved in the palace rooms to this day are surprising in the complexity of the carpentry work, as well as in the thorough processing of the carved jewelry. Such a chandelier at first glance seems to be made of metal with finely chased details.

In the entrance room in front of the reception hall there are six panels of the work of the serf count Sheremetyev. The carving of bouquets with curly stems, musical instruments, agricultural implements, hunting accessories, geometric and antique ornaments was skillfully executed. Threading techniques alternate from coarse-grained plans to the smallest openwork cutting. The world of Russian nature is especially rich and truthful in the carving.

The luxuriously cleaned Italian pavilion gives the impression of a certain overload of decorative details, which is why the integrity of the perception of the interior is somewhat lost. Carving is the main decoration of the pavilion. The frieze and the cornice of the ceiling, columns, pilasters, walls, portals and doors are carved, mirror frames, fireplace screens and other furnishings are decorated with carvings.

The wooden columns of the pavilion, the manufacture of which required great skill and knowledge of carpentry, were considered an exceptional phenomenon in the architectural decoration of Dzor-ts. Capitals, flute selection and carved ornament on columns are made with great skill. The plastic volume of the column with beautifully found proportions is complemented by a marble-like color.

Carved decor placed over the windows on an oval rosette, in the form of a flower of a sunflower, is distinguished by original forms and excellent execution.

Carved panels at the entrance to the offices and adjacent to the hall of the pavilion are interesting in composition and skill of cutting, but the rather dry manner of execution and some shredded forms deprive them of the artistic expressiveness that characterizes the work of serf masters in the passage room.

The fireplace screens are beautiful. Gilded carving, located on the side walls, horizontal planks and legs, amazes with a variety of forms, courage and amazing ease of execution.

There are no examples of such widespread use of wood in the Egyptian pavilion compared to Italian. This spacious three-room room served as a home

concerts and banquets, resolved with great brevity and simplicity. Strictly and richly cleaned the portals of the hall. An elegantly painted pediment with decorative pilasters and platbands closes the doorway. Gilded carved ornaments — antique heads, branches with leaves and quivers with arrows intersecting with a large arrow — are placed on variously shaped panels of green and bluish-gray doors.

The carved lamps and the censer placed especially in the center of the hall are saturated with decorations. Original chairs made by master Pryakhin. Their soft outlines end at the top with a carved lyre-shaped back.

A prominent place in the general decoration of the palace is occupied by chiseled balusters. The baluster as an architectural detail finds diverse application in many halls – in the fences of stairs, choirs and lodges of the theater, etc. Balusters have one common vase-like shape for all halls, found in the interior of the late 18th century. The simple, graceful, chiseled shape of the baluster is usually complemented by a low relief with carvings of flutes, profiled belts and floral ornaments. The balusters of the palace are distinguished by high performance techniques.

The carved decor of the Ostankino Palace, made in the workshop of Pavel Spol, is very close in material, the motifs of the ornament and the technique of carving decorations of the house of Demidov. This similarity can be seen by comparing, for example, the carvings of the frieze of the entablature of the Italian pavilion and the desuport of the Blue living room of the Demidov house, the carvings of flower garlands of the portrait frame of Pavel I in the Puntsova living room in Ostankino with the carvings of the garlands of the desuport Malinoza living room of the Demidov house, etc.

The similarity of decor in the interiors of two remarkable architectural monuments built at different times of the second half of the XVIH century is explained by the fact that some artists and craftsmen who worked on interior design in the house of Demidov later took part in creating the decoration and furnishings of the Ostankino Palace.

The use of wood in the decoration of interiors in the second half of the 18th century in St. Petersburg was insignificant. Only architects Cameron and Brenna once used gilded wood to decorate portals and door paintings.

Throughout the XVIII century, Russian embossed carving has passed a difficult, distinctive path. It clearly reflected not only the stylistic features of this period, but also the originality of the national art culture.

The variety of artistic decisions of decorative carvings does not prevent us from feeling in each sample a special warmth, unique charm.

Masters easily and freely performed the plot of any complexity, giving it the desired character. A sense of proportion allowed them to maintain a conditional, but always lively sense of the image. Patterned scales and beads, flexible branches with leaves, buds and blossoming flowers, ripe fruits and folds of fabrics, by the will of the master artist, turned into decoration, full of charm and enchanting beauty.

The beginning of the 19th century is marked by the further flourishing of architecture and arts and crafts.

The Russian classics of the late 18th century are being replaced by empire forms with their utmost conciseness, solemnity and monumentality.

The use of wood for interior decoration at that time took up less space. In palace, administrative, and residential buildings, gypsum, natural and artificial marble are used for wall cladding. Moldings are placed on large planes of the walls, sometimes the walls are upholstered with silk fabric or papered with paper wallpaper on the walls.

Moldings are combined with picturesque panels and pilasters. Wood panels are becoming rare.

Decorative carving is mainly used for decorating doors, frames for mirrors and upholstery fabrics. Most often, carvings adorn door leafs made of simpler wood (birch). Sockets or wreaths, as a rule, fit into one or another geometric shape, which is emphasized by a carved layout.

Threading is performed in an array or superimposed on it. Usually carved jewelry is covered with gesso and gilded, the remaining surface of the door leaf is painted white with oil paint.

Doors made of birch with carved decor become typical even in the palace interior. For example, during the construction of Elagin and Mikhailovsky palaces, the architect K.I. Rossi used mainly birch for doors. Many works were performed by master V. Bobkov.

Built-in mirrors, which occupy the entire wall in the decoration of interiors of the 19th century, are less common. They are mainly used for hanging mirrors, the frames of which are rectangular with a carved cornice.

Wooden profiled with carving layouts in the form of narrow rods are used for upholstering walls with fabrics or wallpaper. Such frames were decorated with carvings in the form of branches, leaves, flowers.

In the interiors of suburban estates and city houses of the provincial nobility, carved decor was used more widely. Classical ornaments of the beginning of the 19th century are combined in them with motifs of folk architecture, and the carving itself looks more like carved jewelry made by local craftsmen.

Furniture, as part of the architecture, was predominantly built-in. Wall benches, widespread in everyday life, were the main subject of furnishing the dwelling.

The benches were arranged along the entire length, from two and even from three sides of the hut, starting from the front door. They were made quite wide, so that they could be freely accommodated at night. Their purpose was different, in the red corner – ceremonial, at the door — like furniture for an entrance hall, in the kitchen — for chores.

The board of such a bench was firmly fastened to the wall on one side, and the other spiraled into legs. Carved hanging boards were sewn to the front edge of the plank – an edge resembling in its shape an arch with a hanging weight, which was typical for architecture of the 17th century. The legs were given the shape of a figure.

In the inventories and historical documents various types of carpentry benches made of linden, pine and oak are indicated. Initially, the benches had plank sidewalls with a semicircular cut in the lower part of the boards, fastened by a massive proton. Later, instead of sidewalls, legs, a patterned back and armrests began to be made. In the 17th century, “sleeping” benches with a headrest appeared, replacing the bed at that time. Of great interest is the so-called “saddle” bench with a folding back. Convenience of the “bench” bench is that you can sit on either side. The backs of the benches are distinguished by a variety of carved ornaments.

Lazeks and benches were covered with special mattresses from homespun patterned fabric or from cloth. In the prosperous part of the population, you can see benches and benches upholstered in expensive fabrics or colored leather.

Judging by the miniature images of the old manuscripts and icons, the tables were made of different designs and sizes. Usually the materialol was oak, spruce and pine. Tables set at the corners or back of the benches. The covers were usually rectangular or square. The arrangement of the underframe was mainly changed. Drawers were placed in the underframe, shelves, doors covered the box of the table, legs, frames and panels were decorated with chiseled details and carved ornaments. Sometimes table covers were painted with “picturesque writing.”

Armchairs and chairs for residential and office space initially had a high seat and back. The sides and back were made lattice. In the XVII century, the chair and chair are reduced in size. The back is made low: the dimensions of all parts of the product began to fit the figure of a person. Along with the straight line, an oval back appears. Simple, rectilinear shapes of this furniture were decorated with through or in-depth geometric carvings.

The international relations of Russia, which began in the 17th century, made it possible to replenish the lack of furniture products to some extent. Through Arkhangelsk, cabinets, tables, chairs, armchairs, beds and mirrors were imported from Western Europe.

Russian craftsmen made round and octagonal tables on massive chiseled legs, chairs with carved and chiseled details, and large-sized caskets and boxes, according to samples of imported furniture.

The masters of the Armory at the request of Princess Sophia performed carved armchairs, “unfastened” chairs, comfortable during transfers, and other furniture. Often this furniture was upholstered in bright velvet, gilded braid, covered with gold leaf and decorated with copper frames.

Thanks to the architectural principles laid down in the design and decoration, the furniture of ancient Russia was remarkable for its monumentality and plastic picturesqueness. These principles inherent in the forms of folk furniture can be traced in subsequent periods of development of Russian furniture. Of course, while maintaining this principle, historical conditions and the level of production were reflected in the design and aesthetic advantages of wooden products.

The wide scope of the construction of palaces, public and government buildings in St. Petersburg and its suburbs, and partly in Moscow, at the beginning of the XVIII century caused the need for furnishing a large number of rooms. However, Russia at that time did not have enough furniture workshops and enterprises, so the demand for furniture that could not be satisfied with domestic production and had to order furniture in the Netherlands, England, Germany and partly in France.

Although Peter I first sought to conclude contracts with foreign masters of various professions invited to the Russian service, it is nevertheless known that in May 1715, through Prince Kurakin, he made the first order for furniture to the French court architect Curton. From France, furniture was sent in four drawers to Russia, including a carved bed and two gilded chairs.

Menshikov took out a lot of French and Dutch furniture for the Grand Palace in Oranienbaum, which was under construction. A large amount of furniture was exported from Paris as a gift to Count Vorontsoz and other king’s close associates.

In addition, foreign furniture came to Russia in other ways. For example, the French consul De Verton, with his confidant in St. Petersburg, sent “forty huge bales with furniture and various goods” to Russia and immediately arranged a sale, which lasted from July 1722 to October 1723. Among the shipped furniture were mirror cabinets, inlaid tables, armchairs, and dressing tables. Through the mediation and advice of Jean Baptiste Leblon, Peter I acquired foreign furniture.

During the trip of the “Great Embassy” abroad, Peter I, arriving from Paris, personally examined some manufactories and furniture enterprises there. He was especially pleased with the first list of French masters who expressed their consent to go to work in Russia. This list, compiled by Lefort in 1716, gives a clear idea that Peter I was also concerned about the search for experienced cabinet makers-furniture makers. The lists indicated cabinet masons, just cabinet makers, gilders and upholstery furniture. Among them were very skilled, experienced and well-known masters in Paris: cabinet makers Charles Peron and Louis Farser, wood turner Aubrey, gilder Nicolas Pilon.

At the conclusion of the contract, specialists arriving from abroad were charged with the obligation to train students assigned to them.

Under Peter I, Russian people, often even privileged classes, went abroad to study various crafts, including carpentry and furniture. So, in 1722, after graduation, young noblemen-craftsmen returned to Russia from Holland and England: masters of the “carpentry house-building” A. Baranov, Manturov; the masters of “cabinet cabinetry” B. Baranov, Martynov and Prince Mikhailo Nerytskaya, “cabinetry bed” – Sharygin and “zamoshnoe case” – Kvashin and Selunsky. Peter I, who knew fourteen craftsmanship himself and entered into all the intricacies of carpentry, made an exam for everyone who arrived and was pleased with their success.

Foreign and Russian masters worked with equal zeal in the royal palaces and on the magnificent ships that were the pride of Peter! Having visited the Peterhof Palace on August 1, 1721, the Holstein resident Bergolz described his rooms in such a way: ”... small but charming, decorated with beautiful furniture.” A little later, the French consul Campredon wrote from St. Petersburg to Versailles that the ship of Peter I, “Svetzia Catherine” was “magnificent in its furniture.” He wrote that on the yacht Elizabeth, launched in September 1722, “the furniture, gilding and ornaments were very well executed.”

By the end of the 1720s, the luxurious furnishings and furnishings of the palaces of Peter and his entourage, according to contemporaries, were not much different from the most magnificent palaces of Prussia, the Netherlands and Scandinavia.

Furniture manufactured in Russia at the beginning of the 18th century gains new features, some pretentiousness of the forms of furniture of the 17th century is overcome , and great restraint in decoration is acquired. Its massive, somewhat squat forms with sculptural processing of load-bearing parts were distinguished by clarity of design, simplicity of outlines, which corresponded to a new look at architecture and the expediency of the style of this era.

However, the Russian furniture of the Petrine period was still closely connected with the forms of furniture of the 17th century. This is explained not only by the continuity of national traditions, but also by the transitional period from the forms of Old Russian furniture to the most advanced designs (by the middle of the 18th century).

In addition, in the Russian furniture business, an important process of mastering the best achievements of Western art is taking place. At this time, Russian furniture makers eagerly repeated furniture samples of Dutch, English and French work, their high skill and precision of execution more than once impressed foreign experts. At the same time, Russian craftsmen strove for an active and conscious perception of the artistic merits of the patterns they reproduced, introducing new features into them associated with a national understanding of the forms of furniture. Therefore, despite the process of processing and mastering foreign furniture samples, Russian furniture art maintained an independent development path.

The main types of artistic decoration of furniture were carvings and turned parts. Carving, most often found on chairs and armchairs, was performed on an array. The nature of the forms of ornament and the technique of carving were close to the carvings of the 17th century, especially the last quarter of this century. Turning parts were of various shapes, especially round, twisted, wavy and in the form of balusters. Compared with the XVII century, at this time in turning products there is a combination of small parts into one common shape, which significantly increases the expressiveness of the silhouette of the product.

Turning business at that time was given a large place. Peter I in order to expand the production of turning products opens the royal lathe in the Preobrazhensky Palace. After the construction of the Summer Palace is completed, the royal turning workshops are transferred to its territory. In Moscow, in the former Sukharev Tower, a large turning workshop was also opened, where Peter met the young turner Andrei Nartov.

Andrei Nartov invented lathes, new in their design, adapted for artistic woodworking. He designed the world’s first caliper, constructed an oval copy and engraving machine, which marked a real revolution in mechanical engineering, not only in Russia but throughout Europe. On the machines of Nartov it was possible to perform various operations (skinning, drilling, etc.), as well as to produce any shape of the part (round, oval, twisted, wavy, round with oblique profiling and profile-rectangular).

The turner of the Summer Palace, which was a good school, worked together with Nartov as turning masters Yuri Kurnosy, Filipp Maximov and Varlam Fedorov. Nartov also learned many other masters who worked at that time: Ivan Leontyev, Stepan Yakovlev, Alexandrov, Zhurikovsky and Semyon Matveev.

Furniture of this time was decorated with oil painting. In the ethnographic museum in Leningrad there is a table of Peter’s time. The cover of this table is painted with oil painting depicting trees and birds. The painted table from the Yekaterinhof Palace, located in the Hermitage, has an oval cover painted with paints on gesso. The decorations are acanthus curls and medallions with fantastic landscapes placed among them. A cellar is stored in the Armory, the inside of the lid of which is painted with oil paint. In the decoration of the palaces one could see things painted on varnish. For example, in the Hermitage there is a casket made at the beginning of the 18th century with gold painted on black lacquer.

For furniture upholstery, smooth and embossed leather, smooth red cloth and velvet, less often brocade, were used. Upholstery was usually fastened with nails with large hats located close to each other.

Furniture was made from oak, birch, pine, less often from walnut. Mahogany furniture was brought from England.

Tables at this time were made of various sizes and purposes. The shape of the lid was most often rectangular or square. Massive chiseled legs fastened with a wide proton supported a high table with carved and turning ornaments. The drawers were laid out with profiled frames. To increase the cover of the table, sliding boards were made.

Chairs and armchairs made of various forms. Their backs were very tall, had a dull or through board with carved openwork ornaments. The seatbelt is usually wide, with chiseled or joiner legs of a curved shape called “convertibles”. Furniture for seating was also made in the form of banquets on chiseled legs with a soft seat.

Cabinets depending on the purpose in appearance and size were different. Cases were made for dresses, for books and maps, for dishes or for writing in the form of a secretary with a board. The wardrobe for the dress was usually double-leafed, had straight-line shapes, a massive cornice and a plinth, and was decorated with overhead profiled rods. The supply cabinet was comparatively small in size, with a deaf bottom slightly protruding forward. The upper part of the cabinet had glazed sashes.

In the manufacture of Peter’s furniture, they were not compiled into headsets for places of a certain household purpose, but were usually selected from separate objects having close forms, wood species and decoration.

Separate forms of furniture from the beginning of the 18th century, for example, chairs with high backs, mirror frames, continued to exist for a long time.

During the heyday of Russian Baroque (40-50 years of the XVIII century), the premises of the most significant architectural structures were fully or partially furnished with furniture made by Russian craftsmen.

In addition to domestic furniture, they used furniture imported from England, and mainly from France.

Furniture at this time was designed by architects V.V. Rastrelli, S.I. Chevakinsky, V.I. Neelov, A.F. Kokorinov and A, Rinaldi. Eye architect checks and approves furniture drawings made by assistants, constantly monitors the manufacture, decoration and upholstery in carpentry shops.

Under the guidance of healing Russian architects, highly skilled craftsmen such as Mansurov, Vorobyov, as well as craftsmen from Okhta who performed carpentry, carving and gold work, work on the creation of furniture.

In the furniture of the 40-50s of the 18th century, one can trace the desire for some grace, comfort and ease of use, a gradual decrease in heaviness and angularity of forms. With decreasing furniture size, soft and curved shapes begin to prevail. Large and expressive decorations on furniture of the beginning of the XVill century are replaced by the smallest, intertwined patterns, with a delicate modeling of its individual parts. These features of Russian furniture corresponded to progressive national traditions.

The main type of artistic decoration of furniture at this time is carving. Carved decorations were made in relief and openwork. Most often, the harness was worked on by a band, legs and sleeves at tables (especially under-mirror ones), backs, lockers of sofas and armchairs, cornices of frames of wall mirrors and fireplace screens.

The candlesticks and floor lamps were richly decorated with carvings. Sometimes furniture was almost entirely covered with carvings, and it made an impression as if cut from a piece of wood.

A large place in the decoration of furniture began to occupy the typesetting of wood and inlay. From the non-ferrous species of wood, smalt, amber, ivory and walrus, motifs of various types were plotted, placing them on the planes of the stoloz covers, bureaus, cabinet doors, and chests of drawers.

Widely used painting on colored varnishes. The manufacturing technology of colored varnishes at that time was at a high level. The best were Chinese and Japanese varnishes.

The Chinese began to trade with varnish products with neighboring countries from the 13th century, and at the beginning of the 17th century Chinese lacquer cabinets began to be brought to Europe.

This material was prepared with the support of the wallpaper store and wall decor: https://rulon.net.ua/



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